These resources examine why diversity is an important issue in psychological testing.
Canino, I. A., & Spurlock, J. (2000). Culturally diverse children and adolescents: Assessment, diagnosis, and treatment (2nd ed.). New York: Guilford.
Some of the relevant chapters are: “The Relationship between Social Class and Psychopathology,” “The Influence of Culture on Diagnosis,” “Culturally-Sensitive Psychological Assessment,” and “Alternate Assessment Strategies.”
Comas-Diaz, L.z & E. E. H. Griffith (Eds.), Clinical guidelines in cross-cultural mental health.New York: John Wiley.
Jacobsen chapter describes five stages of ethnocultural assessment.
Cuellar, I., & Paniagua, F. A. (Eds.). (2000). Handbook of multicultural mental health: Assessment and treatment of diverse populations. San Diego, CA: Academic.
A comprehensive book that discusses culture specific beliefs and the influence of culture on treatment and assessment.
Dana, R. H. (Ed.). (2000). Handbook of cross-cultural personality assessment. Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum.
This book discusses how practitioners can avoid biases in assessment when clients are from different racial or ethnic backgrounds.
Geisinger, K. F. (Ed.). (1992). Psychological testing of Hispanics. Washington, DC: American Psychological Association.
Societal, educational, and clinical issues are discussed with regard to the psychological testing of Hispanics.
Gopaul-McNicol, S., & Armour-Thomas, E. (2002). Assessment and culture: Psychological tests with minority populations. San Diego, CA: Academic.
This book examines the intellectual, linguistic proficiency, academic performance, and other assessment measures of culturally diverse children.
Graham, J.R. (2006). MMPI-2: Assessing personality and psychopathology (4th edition). New York: Oxford University Press.
The author examines the use of the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory and its use with such groups as adolescents, older adults, ethnic minorities, and medical patients, and in personnel screening and correctional settings.
Groth-Marnat, G. (2009). Handbook of psychological assessment (5th edition.). New York: John Wiley & Sons.
The author of this book examines the validity of various psychological tests when used with diverse groups. Some of the measures covered include; Wechsler Intelligence Scales, Wechsler Memory Scales, Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory, Millon Clinical Multiaxial Inventory, California Psychological Inventory, The Rorschach, Thematic Apperception Test, and various screenings for neuropsychological impairment.
Helms, J. E. (1991). Black and white racial identity attitudes: Theory, research, and practice. Westport, CT: Greenwood.
The author discusses the assessment of racial identity and reviews research where racial identity was an important variable.
Kurasaki, K., Sue, S., & Okazaki, S. (Ed.). (2002). Asian American mental health: Assessment theories and methods. New York: Kluwer Academic/Plenum.
The authors discuss assessment issues and mental health of Asian Americans.
Luther, M. G., Cole, E., & Gamlin, P. J. (1996). Dynamic assessment for instruction: From theory to application. North York: Captus University Publications.
Chapter by Weizmann claims to refute claims about racial differences in intellectual abilities.
Mertens, D. M. (2005). Research and evaluation in education and psychology: Integrating diversity with quantitative, qualitative, and mixed methods (2nd ed.). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.
A methodology textbook with sections on gender, race, ethnicity, and disability differences in meta-analysis, and cultural bias in qualitative data analysis.
Paniagua, F. A. (2005). Assessing and treating culturally diverse clients: A practical guide. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.
This book gives guidelines for practice with culturally-diverse clients.
Pennock-Román, M. (1990). Test validity and language background: A study of Hispanic American students at six universities. New York: College Board.
A statistically oriented book that compares Hispanic students to non-Hispanic students on numerous variables.
Ponterotto, J. G., Casas, J. M., Suzuki, L. A., & Alexander, C. M. (Eds.). (2001). Handbook of multicultural assessment: Clinical, psychological, and educational applications (2nd ed.). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.
A large volume that covers multicultural research, theory, procedures, and psychological measurement, gender issues, higher education issues, and historical perspectives.
Rhodes, R. L. (2005). Assessing culturally and linguistically diverse students: A practical guide. New York: Guilford.
The authors address legal and ethical requirements involved in equity of assessment for culturally diverse groups. They also examine bilingual education and practical ways to conduct academic assessments.
Samuda, R. J. (1998). Psychological testing of American minorities. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.
The author claims to debunk many of the arguments presented in Murray and Herrnstein’s Bell Curve book.
Sandoval, J., Geisinger, K. F., & Frisby, C. (Eds.). (1998). Test interpretation and diversity. Washington, DC: American Psychological Association.
A psychometric guide for testing culturally diverse groups.
Suzuki, L.A., Ponterotto, J.G., & Meller, P.J. (2008). Handbook of multicultural assessment: Clinical, psychological, and educational applications (3rd ed.). San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass publication.
This updated text blends earlier assessment themes and authors with new discussion, information, and contributors. Topics include culturally appropriate psycho-educational assessment, building test norms for specific communities, the role of acculturation in assessment, cultural and racial identity, and assessment with refugees and asylum seekers.
Valencia, R. R., & Suzuki, L. A. (2001). Intelligence testing and minority students: Foundations, performance factors, and assessment issues. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.
The authors discuss the controversies of intelligence testing.
Journal Articles and Book Chapters
Bernal, G., & Scharró-del-Río, M. R. (2001). Are empirically supported treatments valid for ethnic minorities? Toward an alternative approach for treatment research. Cultural Diversity and Ethnic Minority Psychology, 7, 328–342.
The authors examine how to establish empirically-supported clinical treatments for use with ethnic minorities.
Betz, N. E., & Fitzgerald, L. F. (1993). Individuality and diversity: Theory and research in counseling psychology. Annual Review of Psychology, 44, 343–381.
Article reviews research on the influence of diversity on counseling and career psychology.
Braden, J. P. (1999). Straight talk about assessment and diversity: What do we know? School Psychology Quarterly, 14, 343–355.
The author discusses how between-groups differences influences assessment.
Cervantes, R. C., Fisher, D. G., Córdova, D., & Napper, L. E. (2012). The Hispanic Stress Inventory—Adolescent version: A culturally informed psychosocial assessment. Psychological Assessment, 24(1), 187-196. doi:10.1037/a0025280
Describes a 2-phase study conducted to develop a culturally informed measure of psychosocial stress for adolescents: the Hispanic Stress Inventory—Adolescent Version (HSI–A). Factors include Family Economic Stress, Acculturation-Gap Stress, Culture and Educational Stress, Immigration-Related Stress, Discrimination Stress, Family Immigration Stress, Community and Gang-Related Stress, and Family and Drug-Related Stress.
Clay, D. L., Mordhorst, M. J., & Lehn, L. (2002). Empirically supported treatments in pediatric psychology: Where is the diversity? Journal of Pediatric Psychology, 27, 325–337.
Article appeared in a special issue on ethnic minority and low income children and families. The researchers reviewed past studies to determine if treatments for various problems addressed cultural variables.
Cole, N. S., & Moss, P. A. (1989). Bias in test use. In R. Linn (Ed.), Educational measurement, (3rd ed., pp. 201–219). New York: American Council on Education.
This chapter focuses on issues of test bias.
Donnell, C. M., Robertson, S. L., & Tansey, T. N. (2010). In Mpofu E., Oakland T. (Eds.), Measures of culture and diversity in rehabilitation and health assessment. New York, NY, US: Springer Publishing Co, New York, NY. http://search.proquest.com/docview/622166285?accountid=14729
Presents critical factors in provision of culturally appropriate assessment in vocational rehabilitation.
Figueroa, R. A. (1989). Psychological testing of linguistic-minority students: Knowledge gaps and regulations. Exceptional Children, 56, 145–152.
Article appeared in special issue on meeting the multicultural needs of the Hispanic students in special education. The author warns about errors in the testing of bilingual students.
Frisby, C. L. (1999). Straight talk about cognitive assessment and diversity. School Psychology Quarterly, 14, 195–207.
The author discusses alternative assessments for cultural diverse groups.
Green, B.A. (2009). Culture and mental health assessment. In S. Eshun, & R.A.R. Gerung,. (Eds.), Culture and mental health: Sociocultural influences, theory, and practice (pp.19-33). Wiley-Blackwell.
This chapter reviews the challenges faced in assessing mental health within the context of culture. The first section of the chapter gives the reader examples of the challenges and successes psychologists have in assessing mental health while also taking into account culture. The second section of the chapter investigates crucial components regarding measurement that need to be considered before evaluating the validity and culturally sensitivity of a particular mental health assessment.
Greenfield, P. M. (1997). You can't take it with you: Why ability assessments don't cross cultures. American Psychologist, 52, 1115–1124.
Article describes the lack of validity when using tests for different cultures than for which the tests were developed.
Helms, J.E. (2007). Some better practices for measuring racial and ethnic identity constructs. Journal of Counseling Psychology, 54, 235-246.
The author discusses how theoretical constructs in racial and ethnic identity intersect with research design and psychometric practices.
Hodge, D. R., & Limb, G. E. (2010). A Native American perspective on spiritual assessment: The strengths and limitations of a complementary set of assessment tools. Health & Social Work, 35(2), 121-131. doi:10.1093/hsw/35.2.121
Provides an overview of spiritual assessment tools with experts’ evaluations of the appropriateness of their use with Native American clients.
Kramer, T., Evans, N., & Garralda, M. E. (2000). Ethnic diversity among child and adolescent psychiatric (CAP) clinic attenders. Child Psychology and Psychiatry Review, 5, 169–175.
Study reports differences based on ethnicity in clinical referrals and diagnoses.
Madhere, S. (1998). Cultural diversity, pedagogy, and assessment strategies. Journal of Negro Education, 67, 280–295.
In a special issue on assessment in the context of culture and pedagogy, the author discusses how a model of cultural nesting model based on multicultural variables should be used to examine achievement test results.
Nikapota, A. (2009). Cultural issues in child assessment. Child and Adolescent Mental Health, 14(4), 200-206. doi:10.1111/j.1475-3588.2009.00537.x
Reviews the cross-cultural appropriateness of instruments currently used to assess children’s behavior.
Olmedia, E. L. (1981). Testing linguistic minorities. American Psychologist, 36, 1078–1085.
Author discusses why social, political, and economic variables should be considered when testing linguistic minorities.
Paniagua, F.A. (2010). Assessment and diagnosis in a cultural context. In M.M. Leach, & J. D. Aten, (Eds.), Culture and the therapeutic process: A guide for mental health professionals (pp.65-98). New York, NY: Routledge/Taylor & Francis Group.
The author of this chapter offers alternative ways of assessing and diagnosing culturally diverse clients, including discussions of acculturation, culturally appropriate tests, culture-bound syndromes, and cultural variations.
Phinney, J.S., & Ong, A.D. (2007). Conceptualization and measurement of ethnic identity: Current status and future directions. Journal of Counseling Psychology, 54, 271-281.
Conceptualization and measurement of ethnic identity as a multidimensional dynamic construct is discussed in this article. Also, the components of ethnic identity that have been studied along with the theoretical background for a developmental model of ethnic identity are explained. The authors review research on the measurement of ethnic identity using the Multigroup Ethnic Identity Measure and present a revised version of the measure.
Ponterotto, J.G., & Mallinnckrodt, B. (2007). Introduction to the special section on racial and ethnic identity in counseling psychology: Conceptual and methodological challenges and proposed solutions. Journal of Counseling Psychology, 54, 219-223.
Although racial and ethnic identity development have been important topics in relation to counseling psychology, there is debate regarding the quality of theory and measurement within this area. To investigate this, the authors discuss racial and ethnic identity scholarship within the history of multicultural counseling research.
Ponterotto, J.G., & Park-Taylor, J. (2007). Racial and ethnic identity theory, measurement, and research in counseling psychology: Present status and future directions. Journal of Counseling Psychology, 54, 282-294.
The authors of this article discuss the role of politics and ideology in writing on racial identity development and review the progress the field has made on topics of racial and ethnic identity development. The need for interdisciplinary work on theory testing is highlighted, and examples of best practices in measuring racial and ethnic identity are discussed.
Sedighdeilami, F., & Gindi, S. (2007). Role of diversity in psychological assessment and intervention for individuals with developmental disabilities. In I. Brown, & M. Percy (Eds.), A comprehensive guide to intellectual and developmental disabilities (pp.403-413). Baltimore, MD: Paul H Brookes Publishing.
This chapter reviews a number of key issues that can help professionals working with individuals who have intellectual or developmental disabilities and are of culturally and ethnically diverse backgrounds.
Sharma, S., & Sharma, M. (2008). Stress-induced psychological vital signs in military domain: Assessment and intervention issues. Psychological Studies, 53, 7-19.
The authors of this article review research on anxiety, anger and depression as stress induced psychological vital signs of emotional distress or poor well-being, and their role as precursors as well as diagnostic essentials of a number of mental health problems. The authors also highlight intervention issues related to the maintenance and promotion of mental health among military personnel; and the promotion of help-seeking behavior and self-care strategies as part of preventive mental health training and post-trauma rehabilitation.
Williams, R. L. (1975). The BITCH-100: A culture-specific test. Journal of Afro-American Issues, 3, 103–116.
The author developed the Black Intelligence Test of Cultural Homogeneity (BITCH) to explore norms and validation of intelligence tests.
Wong, R., Wu, R., Guo, C., Lam, J. K., & Snowden, L. R. (2011). Culturally sensitive depression assessment for Chinese American immigrants: Development of a comprehensive measure and a screening scale using an item response approach. Asian American Journal of Psychology, doi:10.1037/a0025628
Describes the construction of a screening scale of depression for Chinese American immigrants that involved combining an emic approach with item response analysis.
Wong, T. M., & Fujii, D. E. (2004). Neuropsychological assessment of Asian Americans: Demographic factors, cultural diversity, and practical guidelines. Applied Neuropsychology, 11, 23–36.
This article provides guidelines to help neuropsychologists who work with Asian American patients.
Yamada, A., & Brekke, J.S. (2008). Addressing mental health disparities through clinical competence not just cultural competence: The need for assessment of sociocultural issues in the delivery of evidence-based psychosocial rehabilitation services. Clinical Psychology Review, 28, 1386-1399.
There has been a lack of empirical research on assessment of sociocultural issues that have been linked with the expectations, needs, and goals of culturally diverse clients with severe and persistent mental illness. This article attempts to find ways to design culturally relevant empirically supported practices by discussing one possible step; to insert the assessment of sociocultural issues into psychosocial rehabilitation practice. This provides a foundation on which practitioners can examine the relevance of their interventions to the diversity encountered in everyday practice. The authors also introduce an assessment tool adapted to facilitate this process in psychosocial rehabilitation settings.